## What are primary and secondary outcomes?

Outcome (primary and secondary) – An outcome variable of interest in the trial (also called an end point). The primary outcome is the outcome of greatest importance. Data on secondary outcomes are used to evaluate additional effects of the intervention.

### What is the secondary outcome of a study?

Secondary Outcome Measure: defined by ClinicalTrials.gov as “an outcome measure that is of lesser importance than a primary outcome measure but is part of a pre-specified analysis plan for evaluating the effects of the intervention or interventions under investigation in a clinical study and is not specified as an …

#### What is a primary outcome in a study?

Abstract. The primary outcome measure is the outcome that an investigator considers to be the most important among the many outcomes that are to be examined in the study. The primary outcome needs to be defined at the time the study is designed.

**Why are secondary endpoints studied?**

Secondary endpoints answer other relevant questions about the same study; for example, whether there is also a reduction in disease measures other than death,33 or outcomes rated by patients such as quality of life34.

**What is a key secondary endpoint?**

However, at times, for planning purposes, a key endpoint such as mortality is called a secondary endpoint on expecting it to be a low yield endpoint. In this case, such a secondary endpoint is like a primary end- point and is sometimes called a key secondary endpoint.

## Can you have two primary outcomes?

Conclusions. Our review shows that trials with multiple primary outcomes are common. However, appropriate steps are not usually taken in most of the analyses to safeguard the inferences against multiplicity. Authors should state their chosen primary outcomes clearly and justify their methods of analysis.

### What is a multiplicity adjustment?

Multiplicity adjustments may have to be considered for between-subject effects (e.g. differences between treatment groups), within-subject effects (e.g. within-subject differences over time) or both (e.g. difference between treatment groups and within-subject differences over time).

#### Is primary outcome the same as primary endpoint?

The term outcome usually refers to the measured variable (eg, peak volume of oxygen or PROMIS Fatigue score), whereas an endpoint refers to the analyzed parameter (eg, change from baseline at 6 weeks in mean PROMIS Fatigue score).

**What are study outcomes?**

DEFINITIONS. Outcomes (also called events or endpoints) are variables that are monitored during a study to document the impact that a given intervention or exposure has on the health of a given population. Typical examples of outcomes are cure, clinical worsening, and mortality.

**What is primary efficacy endpoint?**

The primary efficacy endpoint in a clinical trial is a clinical or laboratory outcome measured in an individual after randomization that allows one to test the primary hypothesis and provides the means of assessing whether a therapy is effective compared with its control.

## When do you use intention to treat analysis?

Intention to treat analyses are done to avoid the effects of crossover and dropout, which may break the random assignment to the treatment groups in a study. ITT analysis provides information about the potential effects of treatment policy rather than on the potential effects of specific treatment.

### What is the intention-to-treat effect?

Intention-to-treat analysis is a method for analyzing results in a prospective randomized study where all participants who are randomized are included in the statistical analysis and analyzed according to the group they were originally assigned, regardless of what treatment (if any) they received.

#### What is the difference between per protocol and intention-to-treat?

While an analysis according to the ITT principle aims to preserve the original randomization and to avoid potential bias due to exclusion of patients, the aim of a per-protocol (PP) analysis is to identify a treatment effect which would occur under optimal conditions; i.e. to answer the question: what is the effect if …

**How do you calculate ITT?**

The ITT estimate is $80 – the people to whom he intended to give $100 received an average of $80 more than did the people he did not intend to treat. But, of course, the people who actually showed up got $100 each. This is the TOT and can be calculated as $80/.

**What is ITT in statistics?**

Intention to treat (ITT) analysis is a method of statistical analysis often used in medical research. In ITT analysis, a study participant is analyzed as belonging to whatever treatment group he/she was randomized into, whether or not the treatment course was completed as intended.

## What is a completer analysis?

Completer sample—analyses conducted for only those patients who completed the medication/treatment phase. Other—reported N’s or degrees of freedom that were less than what would be expected for the randomised N, but no explanation of the participants included or excluded from the analysis was provided.

### What is ITT population?

In a randomised trial, the set of all randomised patients is known as the ‘intention to treat population’, or the ITT population. This clinical trial study population is intended to represent suitable patients and to be reflective of what might be seen if the treatment was used in clinical practice.

#### What is PP population?

What is a PP Population, or ‘Per Protocol’ Population in a Clinical Trial? The per protocol population, or PP population is usually defined as all patients completing the study without major protocol deviations – that is, those who followed the rules of the study.

**What is primary analysis clinical trial?**

The primary analyses are pre-specified in the protocol and the findings form the basis for recommendations and clinical decisions. They typically adhere to the intention-to-treat principle. Secondary analyses are supplemental and of various sorts.

**What is a sensitivity analysis in clinical trials?**

Sensitivity analyses determine how the different values of an independent variable impact a particular dependent variable under a given set of conditions. These analyses help to explore the impact of missing data, and deviations by statistical models on trial results.

## What is a prespecified analysis?

A prespecified subgroup analysis is one that is planned and documented before any examination of the data, preferably in the study protocol. This analysis includes specification of the end point, the baseline characteristic, and the statistical method used to test for an interaction.

### What is a sensitivity analysis psychology?

an evaluation of the extent to which the overall outcome of a model or system will be affected by potential changes to the input. This type of analysis is often used when the values of key variables are uncertain or subject to change, such as in financial planning.

#### What is a sensitivity analysis example?

One simple example of sensitivity analysis used in business is an analysis of the effect of including a certain piece of information in a company’s advertising, comparing sales results from ads that differ only in whether or not they include the specific piece of information.

**What is sensitivity analysis used for?**

A sensitivity analysis determines how different values of an independent variable affect a particular dependent variable under a given set of assumptions. In other words, sensitivity analyses study how various sources of uncertainty in a mathematical model contribute to the model’s overall uncertainty.

**How do you conduct a sensitivity analysis?**

To perform sensitivity analysis, we follow these steps:

- Define the base case of the model;
- Calculate the output variable for a new input variable, leaving all other assumptions unchanged;
- Calculate the sensitivity by dividing the % change in the output variable over the % change in the input variable.

## What is the difference between scenario and sensitivity analysis?

The difference between the two methods is that sensitivity analysis examines the effect of changing just one variable at a time. On the other hand, scenario analysis assesses the effect of changing all the input variables at the same time.

### What is sensitivity analysis in project management?

Sensitivity analysis is the quantitative risk assessment of how changes in a specific model variable impacts the output of the model. It is also a key result of Monte Carlo simulations of project schedules. This in turn provides clues to where project managers should look first when a management decision is required.

#### What is a sensitivity?

: the quality or state of being sensitive: such as. a : the capacity of an organism or sense organ to respond to stimulation : irritability. b : the quality or state of being hypersensitive. c : the degree to which a radio receiving set responds to incoming waves.