What is a benzidine used for?
Benzidine and its related chemical substances are used to manufacture dyes. Benzidine-based dyes are used in the production of textiles, paints, printing inks, paper, and pharmaceuticals.
What is benzidine in?
Benzidine is a manufactured chemical that does not occur in nature. In the past, large amounts of benzidine were used to produce dyes for cloth, paper, and leather. It was also used in clinical laboratories for detecting blood, as a rubber-compounding agent, and in the manufacture of plastic films.
What is benzidine made of?
Benzidine is prepared from nitrobenzene in a two-step process: nitrobenzene is converted to 1,2-diphenylhydrazine, usually using iron powder as the reducing agent, and then hydrazine is treated with mineral acids to induce a rearrangement reaction to 4,4′-benzidine.
Where is benzidine found?
Where benzidine dyes are found? Benzidine-based and congener-based dyes are used in the production of textiles, paints, printing inks, paper, and pharmaceuticals. These dyes have the potential to be leached from textiles, such as clothing, that are in prolonged contact with human skin.
Is benzidine specific for blood?
Several presumptive tests have been described for blood stains recognition , , , and one of the most used is Benzidine and its derivative Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) . Both reagents have similar sensitivity, specificity, and stability .
What color is benzidine?
Benzidine appears as a grayish-yellow to grayish-red, crystalline solid.
What is a benzidine test?
Medical Definition of benzidine test : a sensitive test for the presence of blood (as in urine or feces) based on the production of a blue color upon contact with a solution of benzidine, hydrogen peroxide, and glacial acetic acid.
Is benzidine toxic?
No information is available on the acute (short-term) effects of benzidine in humans by inhalation exposure but benzidine is considered to be very acutely toxic to humans by ingestion. Chronic (long-term) exposure to benzidine in humans may result in injury to the bladder.
How can benzidine be prevented?
Personnel protection: Avoid breathing dusts and fumes from burning material. Keep upwind. Avoid bodily contact with the material. Do not handle broken packages without protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. …
What is occult stool?
A fecal occult blood test (FOBT) looks at a sample of your stool (feces) to check for blood. Occult blood means that you can’t see it with the naked eye. Blood in the stool means there is likely some kind of bleeding in the digestive tract. It may be caused by a variety of conditions, including: Polyps.
Where is formaldehyde used?
Formaldehyde is a strong-smelling, colorless gas used in making building materials and many household products. It is used in pressed-wood products, such as particleboard, plywood, and fiberboard; glues and adhesives; permanent-press fabrics; paper product coatings; and certain insulation materials.
Why is benzidine a carcinogen?
Studies on Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis Benzidine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes (via N-oxidation) to form electrophilic compounds that can bind cova- lently to DNA (Choudhary 1996). Benzidine caused mutations in bacteria and plants, but gave conflicting results in cultured rodent cells.
What is the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepine?
BENZODIAZEPINE LIST: THE FIVE MOST COMMON Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) – Chlordiazepoxide was the first benzodiazepine that was discovered in 1955. Alprazolam (Xanax, Xanax XR) – This might be the most used and most known benzo brand. Alprazolam (Valium) – Alprazolam is prescribed to treat anxiety.
What is the longest lasting benzodiazepine?
If you look at the overall benzo scene, and include both pharmaceutical and RC benzos, the longest lasting benzo is undoubtedly Flubromazepam. This little beast has a half-life of 106h and effects can be felt for two days when proper dosing.
How do benzodiazepines affect your sleep?
Benzodiazepines change how the brain manages sleep cycles. While the drugs allow the person to fall into non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep faster, they may change how many sleep cycles the person experiences, how long they stay in NREM sleep, and how often they enter REM sleep.
Is Valium a benzodiazepine?
Valium, a brand name for diazepam , is a commonly abused benzodiazepine drug. Valium is a central nervous system depressant that slows certain types of brain activity.