What is muscle Hypertonicity?

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What is muscle Hypertonicity?

Definition. Hypertonia is a condition in which there is too much muscle tone so that arms or legs, for example, are stiff and difficult to move. Muscle tone is regulated by signals that travel from the brain to the nerves and tell the muscle to contract.

What is a spasticity?

Spasticity is abnormal muscle tightness due to prolonged muscle contraction. It is a symptom associated with damage to the brain, spinal cord or motor nerves, and is seen in individuals with neurological conditions, such as: Cerebral palsy (CP)

What is spasticity and rigidity?

Whereas spasticity arises as a result of damage to the corticoreticulospinal (pyramidal) tracts, rigidity is caused by dysfunction of extrapyramidal pathways, most commonly the basal ganglia, but also as a result of lesions of the mesencephalon and spinal cord.

What causes hypertonic muscle?

Skeletal muscle hypertonia can be caused by many conditions including multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, Parkinson’s disease, and secondary to stroke. Hence, treatment options include agents with central and peripheral sites of action.

What is a contracture?

(kun-TRAK-cher) A permanent tightening of the muscles, tendons, skin, and nearby tissues that causes the joints to shorten and become very stiff. This prevents normal movement of a joint or other body part. Contractures may be caused by injury, scarring, and nerve damage, or by not using the muscles.

What is rigid muscle?

Muscle rigidity, also known as muscle tension, rigor, or stiffness, is one of the most common causes of muscle pain. It’s characterized by the inability of the muscles to relax normally. The condition can affect any of the muscles in the body, causing sharp pain that makes it difficult to move.

What is Cogwheeling behavior?

Cogwheel phenomenon, also known as cogwheel rigidity or cogwheeling, is a type of rigidity seen in people with Parkinson’s disease. It’s often an early symptom of Parkinson’s, and it can be used to make a diagnosis.

What is ragdoll syndrome?

Floppy infant syndrome, also sometimes referred to as rag-doll syndrome, is characterized by hypotonia that could present as either peripheral hypotonia or central. Depending on the origin of hypotonia, the infant will present with different symptoms that ultimately have the characteristic feature of hypotonia.

What is physiological contracture?

A temporary condition in which tension and shortening of a muscle are maintained for a considerable time although there is no tetanus. It may be induced by injury, disease, heat, drug action, or acids.

What is Constricture?

Listen to pronunciation. (kun-TRAK-cher) A permanent tightening of the muscles, tendons, skin, and nearby tissues that causes the joints to shorten and become very stiff. This prevents normal movement of a joint or other body part.

What is the medical term for involuntary movement?

Dyskinesia is a general term for any abnormal involuntary movement.

How are the different types of muscle contractions defined?

Several types of muscle contractions occur and they are defined by the changes in the length of the muscle during contraction. Isotonic Contractions. Isotonic contractions maintain constant tension in the muscle as the muscle changes length. This can occur only when a muscle’s maximal force of contraction exceeds the total load on the muscle.

Is there such a thing as a partially contracted muscle?

Recall from our previous discussion (see section How Muscles Contract ) that there is no such thing as a partially contracted muscle fiber: when a muscle is contracted, some of the fibers contract and some remain at rest (more fibers are recruited as the load on the muscle increases).

What happens to the muscle during an eccentric contraction?

During an eccentric contraction, the muscle elongates while under tension due to an opposing force which is greater than the force generated by the muscle. Rather than working to pull a joint in the direction of the muscle contraction, the muscle acts to decelerate the joint at the end of a movement or otherwise control the repositioning of a load.

What happens to the spindle of a muscle during contraction?

This mechanism normally maintains the sensitivity of the muscle spindle as the muscle shortens during contraction. This allows the muscle spindles to habituate (become accustomed) to an even further-lengthened position.

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