What triggers synaptic transmission?
Synaptic transmission is initiated when an action potential invades a nerve terminal, opening Ca2+ channels, which gate a highly localized, transient increase in intracellular Ca2+ at the active zone (Fig. 1A).
How does alcohol affect synaptic transmission?
Alcohol acts as a general depressant of the central nervous system. It “depresses” or inhibits the function of neurons by reducing their ability to transmit or “fire” electrical impulses.
What drug inhibits a neurotransmitter release?
Phencyclidine and related drugs such as benocyclidine, tenocyclidine, ketamine, and dizocilpine (MK-801), have been shown to inhibit the reuptake of the monoamine neurotransmitters.
How do antagonist drugs affect neurotransmitters?
Antagonists also bind to synaptic receptors but they decrease the effect of the neurotransmitter. Therefore, if a neurotransmitter is inhibitory, an agonist will increase its inhibitory characteristics and an antagonist will decrease it.
What are the three main categories of psychoactive drugs?
The main categories are:
- stimulants (e.g. cocaine)
- depressants (e.g. alcohol)
- opium-related painkillers (e.g. heroin)
- hallucinogens (e.g. LSD)
What are examples of psychoactive drugs?
Examples of psychoactive substances include alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, marijuana, and certain pain medicines. Many illegal drugs, such as heroin, LSD, cocaine, and amphetamines are also psychoactive substances. Also called psychotropic substance.
What are the 3 classifications of drugs?
Drugs can be categorised by the way in which they affect our bodies:
- depressants — slow down the function of the central nervous system.
- hallucinogens — affect your senses and change the way you see, hear, taste, smell or feel things.
- stimulants — speed up the function of the central nervous system.
How are medicines named?
Drugs often have several names. When a drug is first discovered, it is given a chemical name, which describes the atomic or molecular structure of the drug. The chemical name is thus usually too complex and cumbersome for general use.
Why do drugs have weird names?
“What you see approved today is very much a result of the environment in which we work.” That may be why drug brand names have so many odd—or to use Piergrossi’s preferred term, “novel”—characteristics. For example, drug names use the letter Q three times as often as words in the English language.
What is trade and generic name?
Every medicine has an approved generic name. If it is made by several companies, each will also give the medicine a brand (trade) name. So one medicine may have a generic name and also have one or more brand names. This can sometimes lead to confusion.
Is trade name the same as brand name for drugs?
Trade laws forbid generic drugs to look exactly like the brand-name drugs but must all have the same active ingredients for the same medicinal effects. These differences often come from non-active ingredients used such as the dyes, fillers, and preservatives, which help to determine the size, shape and color.
What is the trade name of a drug?
Many drugs are also known by a brand or trade name chosen by the pharmaceutical company making and selling that drug as a medicine. So, for example, the drug infliximab (generic name) is also known as Remicade (brand name).
What is the use of drugs to treat disease called?
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Why are brand name drugs more expensive?
Brand-name drugs are typically more expensive because of the higher initial costs to develop, market, and sell a brand-new drug. For example, a generic drug must have the same active ingredients as the brand-name drug, but the FDA doesn’t require that it has the same inactive ingredients.
Are generic drugs weaker?
Are generic drugs less effective? No. Generic medications are just as effective as brand-name drugs. According to the FDA, drug makers must prove that generic medications can be substituted for brand-name drugs and offer the same benefits as their brand-name counterparts.
Do doctors get anything for prescribing drugs?
Doctors Prescribe More of a Drug If They Receive Money from a Pharma Company Tied to It. Pharmaceutical companies have paid doctors billions of dollars for consulting, promotional talks, meals and more. A new ProPublica analysis finds doctors who received payments linked to specific drugs prescribed more of those drugs …
Do doctors get pay for refills on prescriptions?
There are no legal or insurance regulation requirements to provide prescription refills for free. The insurance company will tell you that you can charge for a prescription refill by requiring the patient to come in for an office visit.